He is best known for conducting applied research that links research and practice. As the figure highlights, early case studies were conducted in the social sciences. YIN suggests careful screening in the selection of cases to ensure specific relevance to the issues of interest and the use of replication logic: Realist—postpositivist YIN conceptualizes case study research as a form of social science.
This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach.
Often these terms are used interchangeably without definitional clarity. As a result, surveys, experiments, and statistical methods anchored in quantitative approaches were favored and considered more rigorous than qualitative designs JOHANSSON, In the sections that follow, the nature of this complexity in explored.
Foundations of education study guide the other hand, STAKE takes a more flexible stance and while concerned with rigor in the processes, maintains a focus on what is studied the case rather than how it is studied the method.
Such investigations were conducted in the natural setting of those experiences with results presented descriptively or as a narrative MERRIAM, Advocating for careful planning, development, and execution of case study research, MERRIAMdiscusses the pragmatic structures that ensure case study research is manageable, rigorous, credible, and applicable.
Furthermore, postpositivists accept that everyone is inherently biased in worldviews, which ultimately influence how the methods used are deployed.
The researcher attempts to capture her or his interpreted reality of the case, while studying the case situationally enables an examination of the integrated system in which the case unfolds.
Pragmatic constructivist MERRIAM maintains a constructivist approach to case study research, whereby the researcher assumes that reality is constructed intersubjectively through meanings and understandings developed socially and experientially. Contains unique video content, not included in the web study guide, that instructors may use to supplement their lectures.
These elements delineate case study from other forms of research and inform the critical aspects of the research design and execution.
Supplementary Instructional Materials All ancillary materials are free to course adopters and available at www. As a result, while case study research has evolved to be a pragmatic, flexible research approach, the variation in definition, application, validity, and purposefulness can create a confusing platform for its use.
Case study designs have been used across a number of disciplines, particularly the social sciences, education, business, law, and health, to address a wide range of research questions.
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Consequently, over the last 40 years, through the application of a variety of methodological approaches, case study research has undergone substantial development. Each methodology is unique in approach depending on the ontological and epistemological stance, however all stem from the motivation to explore, seek understanding, and establish the meaning of experiences from the perspective of those involved ibid.
According to JOHANSSONRobert YIN followed this progress, and drawing on scientific approaches to research gained from his background in the social sciences, applied experimental logic to naturalistic inquiry, and blended this with qualitative methods, further bridging the methodological gap and strengthening the methodological quality of case study research.
Post-positivism is evident in how he defines "case study as a form of empirical inquiry" p. How the methods are used will vary and depend on the research purpose and design, which is often a variation of a single or multiple case study research design.
Design features are sequentially structured and motivated by empirical application. Central to these variations is the underpinning ontological and epistemological orientations of those involved in the evolution of case study research.
Knowledge generated from the research process is relative to the time and context of the study and the researcher is interactive and participates in the study.
Therefore, emphasis is placed on using multiple methods with triangulation to circumvent errors and understand what is happening in reality as close as possible to the "truth" LINCOLN et al.
Cases are selected based on the research purpose and question, and for what they could reveal about the phenomenon or topic of interest. While still qualitative and inductive, it was deterministic in nature with an emphasis on cause and effect, testing theories, and an apprehension of the truth BROWN, ; YIN, Instructors can easily add, modify, and rearrange the order of the slides as well as search for images based on key words.
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