Poor environmental circumstances, especially of nutrition, result in lowered birth weight in the human being. As a child gets bigger, there are changes in shape and in tissue composition and distribution.
The great rate of growth of the fetus compared with that of the child is largely due to the fact that cells are still multiplying. There is a brief discussion of some of the problems that beset the investigator in gathering and analyzing data about growth of children, of the genetic and environmental factors that affect rate of growth and final size, and of the way hormones act at the various phases of the growth process.
Types and rates of human growth Different tissues and different regions of the body mature at different rates, and the growth and development of a child consists of a highly complex series of changes.
Age in the fetal period is usually reckoned from the first day of the last menstrual period, an average of two weeks before actual fertilization, but, as a rule, the only locatable landmark. In the muscle there is a great amount of intercellular substance and a much higher proportion of water than in mature muscle.
Babies who are held back in this way grow rapidly as soon as they have emerged from the uterus. The muscle and nerve cells of the fetus are considerably different in appearance from those of the child or adult.
The blood and tissue concentrations of those substances whose amounts change with age are thus more likely to run parallel to the velocity rather than to the distance curve.
Page 1 of 6. Both have little cytoplasm cell substance around the nucleus. In some circumstances, indeed, it is the acceleration rather than the velocity curve that best reflects physiological events.
The cells become bigger, the intercellular substance largely disappears, and the concentration of water decreases. See Article History Human development, the process of growth and change that takes place between birth and maturity.
Mothers who, because of adverse circumstances in their own childhoodhave not achieved their full growth potential may produce smaller fetuses than they would have, had they grown up in better circumstances. Thus two generations or even more may be needed to undo the effect of poor environmental circumstances on birth weight.
It operates in many species of animals; the most dramatic demonstration was by crossing reciprocally a large Shire horse and a small Shetland pony. The fundamental questions of growth relate to these processes of regulation, to the program that controls the loom, a subject as yet little understood.
A slight increase in velocity is sometimes said to occur between about six and eight years. This slowing-down mechanism enables a genetically large child developing in the uterus of a small mother to be delivered successfully. It is like the weaving of a cloth whose pattern never repeats itself.
In the nerve cells cytoplasm is added and elaborated, and extensions grow that carry impulses from and to the cells—the axons and dendrites, respectively.
But both foals were the same size after a few months, and when fully grown both were about halfway between their parents. This general velocity curve of growth in height begins a considerable time before birth. In most tissues, growth consists both of the formation of new cells and the packing in of more protein or other material into cells already present; early in development cell division predominates and later cell filling.
This process continues quite actively up to about three years of age and slowly thereafter; at adolescence it briefly speeds up again, particularly in boys, under the influence of androgenic male sex hormones. There is considerable evidence that from about 34 to 36 weeks onward the rate of growth of the fetus slows down because of the influence of the maternal uteruswhose available space is by then becoming fully occupied.
If growth is thought of as a form of motion, the height attained at successive ages can be considered the distance travelled, and the rate of growth, the velocity.
In this section, the height curves of girls and boys are considered in the three chief phases of growth; that is briefly from conception to birth, from birth until pubertyand during puberty. The later fetal and the postnatal growth of the muscle consists chiefly of building up the cytoplasm of the muscle cells; salts are incorporated and the contractile proteins formed.
From birth until age four or five, the rate of growth in height declines rapidly, and then the decline, or deceleration, gets gradually less, so that in some children the velocity is practically constant from five or six up to the beginning of the adolescent spurt. Human growth is far from being a simple and uniform process of becoming taller or larger.
In the newborn infant the muscles constitute a much smaller percentage of the total body mass than in the young adult.Prenatal Development. Shaffer () defines human development as occurrences or changes in an individual that happen between conception and death.
In other words, human development is an ongoing process that begins as soon as a sperm penetrates an ovum. Human Growth and Development DEP Jochy Martinez Activity 3: Chapter 18 Essay Questions Explain Erik Erickson’s views on older adulthood Erikson felt that much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage and the last stage is recovering from it.
Guided Autobiography: An Approach to Human Development. Hateley, B.
J. This paper, written for counselors and educators, describes a course in guided autobiography (a self-narrative which is structured around important life themes such as family, work, health, love and death) and its role in developmental psychology.
One thought on “ 8/15 – A Developmental Autobiography: Plateaus and Transitions in My Development as an Adult ” Nick Owen September 1, at am Great article Ed.
Autobiography- Human Development, a timeline made with Timetoast's free interactive timeline making software. Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Autobiography On Human Development.Download